Night-shift workers can utilize pre-shift naps and secondary power naps in last part of the shift. Nap opportunities should be built into the work culture. Power naps may require post-nap recovery time.
Alternative shift workers and situation responders should utilize pre-shift naps prior to extended shifts or periods where extended shifts are likely (such as utility workers before storm duty). Naps help.
Although naps during extended or night shifts (for example, hospital staff at night) can utilize planned nap opportunities during the circadian lull at night, pre-shift naps appear to be the most effective.
Physiological sleep even during napping enacts sleep-dependent processes that are important for learning, memory, cognition & vigilance. Rest or "time of task" does not provide same benefits.